Tauzilkree Is it better to be just or unjust if one can get away with it? As the inventor of curative drugs and philosophical mercuries, it is reasonable to assume that Starkey was concerned with guarding these inventions and preserving his trade secrets. General List of women philosophers Lists of philosophers by core area List of aestheticians List of epistemologists List of ethicists List of logicians List of metaphysicians List of social and political philosophers List of political philosophers List of political theorists Lists of philosophers by field List of philosophers of language List of philosophers of mind List of philosophers of religion List phipalethes philosoph Member feedback about Becoming philosophy: In his youth, he made a good-will visit to the Japanese Empire on behalf of the Russian Empire and another to the Brazilian Empire. Logic from the Ancient Greek: Aesthetics topic Aesthetics is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of art, beauty, and taste and with the creation and appreciation of beauty. Western culture Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. In turn, the social sciences themselves are of focal interest to the philosophy of soci However, professional philosophers generally accord serious philosophical problems specific names or questions, which indicate a particular method of attack or line of reasoning.
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Early life[ edit ] Starkey was born in Bermuda , the first of at least five children of George Stirk, a Scottish minister and devoted Calvinist , and Elizabeth Painter. During his early years in Bermuda, Starkey displayed interest in natural history , as evidenced by his written entomological observations of various insects indigenous to Bermuda.
Introduced to alchemical theory, he would later stylise himself as the "Philosopher by Fire. Despite his successful medical practice, Starkey immigrated at age 22 to London, England, in November with his wife, Susanna Stoughton, whom he had married earlier that year.
Susanna is believed to be the eldest daughter of Colonel Israel Stoughton , and sister of William Stoughton , a future governor of Massachusetts. One clue points to his interest in alchemy and chemical technology. It is known that Starkey was acquiring great skill at building ovens to facilitate alchemical experiments. However, he complained that the region offered unsuitable material needed for their operation, and therefore believed that relocating to England could provide access to better material and higher quality laboratory implements as well.
Imprisoned for a brief period of time, Starkey returned to the practice of alchemy and medicine upon his release in late Additionally, he wrote and published a number of popular treatises. Yet, his most important work was written under several pseudonyms during the period prior to imprisonment when he was associated with the Hartlib circle. The most famous of these works, the Introitus apertus ad occlusum regis palatium, was published in after his death.
Prior to the death of his father in , Starkey most likely was tutored, perhaps by his parents or learned acquaintances of the family. After the death of the elder Stirk, Starkey was sent to New England around to continue his studies. In he matriculated at Harvard College, where he was exposed to a core curriculum in the classical languages and theology in addition to courses in logic, physics, mathematics, politics, and history. Starkey earned his A.
During his years at Harvard, Starkey was introduced to alchemy through the physics curriculum, which included subjects on metallic transmutation and potable gold. In addition, he acquired a thorough understanding of corpuscular matter theory that was important to his alchemist work throughout his career.
He was a devoted follower of the Flemish iatrochemist Jan Baptist van Helmont , and had been tutored in the practical applications of metallurgy. His medical practice appears to have been highly successful, which included iatrochemistry. Despite his flourishing practice, Starkey decided England could provide better access to the tools required by an alchemist, which prompted him to sail for London with his wife in November He acquired immediate acclaim in England as an alchemical savant, due in part to the well-connected network of scientific practitioners and colleagues he had been associated with in New England.
However, despite his success, Starkey abandoned his patients in to pursue the "secrets" of alchemy, which included the production of pharmaceuticals and the transmutation of metallic substances. As the inventor of curative drugs and philosophical mercuries, it is reasonable to assume that Starkey was concerned with guarding these inventions and preserving his trade secrets.
A few years after arriving in London, Starkey began to suffer from his own success. A variety of projects, from the manufacture of perfumes and pharmaceuticals to the production of sophic mercuries, were pulling him in different directions, straining professional relationships, and failed to generate sufficient income.
The cost to personally fund these projects was leaving him financially unstable as debts increased. He was imprisoned twice for debt, and when not in prison, he avoided creditors by concealing his whereabouts.
It was necessary that a beleaguered Starkey reestablish his financial footing, restore his reputation, and attract new patronage.
No doubt he continued his search for the perfect liquor alchahest, a medicinal solvent whose purpose was similar to theriac , an antidotal compound that was consumed to preserve health and prevent illness. Although he continued to produce medical treatises, three political pamphlets that he wrote in along with public disputes he engaged in with other medical practitioners and the Royal College of Physicians further tainted his career.
For all of his belief in the ability of the Helmontian medicines to cure disease and prevent illness, the Helmontian alchahest Starkey prepared to combat the plague was ineffective. To the end, Starkey remained faithful to the Flemish iatrochemist that he revered. They were read by notable men of science in the seventeenth century and well into the eighteenth century, to include Boyle, Locke, Leibniz, and Newton.
Indeed, his writings were influential in the emerging field of chymistry by advancing the doctrine that chemical phenomena are the result of the interaction of insensible particles accompanied by chemical forces. Pyrotechny asserted and illustrated London, The admirable efficacy of oyl which is made of Sulphur-Vive The dignity of kinship asserted Royal and other innocent blood crying aloud to heaven for due vengeance A smart Scourge for a silly, sawcy Fool, an answer to letter at the end of a pamphlet of Lionel Lockyer An Epistolar discourse to the Learned and Deservingauthor of Galeno-pale Works published under the name of Philalethes.
IRENAEUS PHILALETHES PDF
Early life[ edit ] Starkey was born in Bermuda , the first of at least five children of George Stirk, a Scottish minister and devoted Calvinist , and Elizabeth Painter. During his early years in Bermuda, Starkey displayed interest in natural history , as evidenced by his written entomological observations of various insects indigenous to Bermuda. Introduced to alchemical theory, he would later stylise himself as the "Philosopher by Fire. Despite his successful medical practice, Starkey immigrated at age 22 to London, England, in November with his wife, Susanna Stoughton, whom he had married earlier that year. Susanna is believed to be the eldest daughter of Colonel Israel Stoughton , and sister of William Stoughton , a future governor of Massachusetts.
Nakora Objecthood is the state of being an object. George Starkey — Wikipedia It is known that Starkey was acquiring great skill at building ovens to facilitate alchemical experiments. The original message, coming in response to a question of whether it was lawful for Jews to pay taxes to Caesar, gives rise to multiple possible interpretations about the circumstances under philalethe it is desirable for the Christian to submit to earthly authority. It is the most important source for the metalloid antimony.
Fetilar This is a list of some of the irenaaeus unsolved problems in philosophy. Qualitative research Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Despite his flourishing practice, Starkey decided England could provide better access to the tools required by an alchemist, which pphilalethes him to sail for London with his wife in November It asserts that not all knowledge is gained from experience and the senses. Fictional twins Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Epistemology addresses such questions as: A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.