He is referred to as the Indian Machiavelli as a result of his undisputed and shrewd techniques and policies, which mirror a "realist" approach to politics, diplomacy and warfare. His Arthashastra text recommended that no means were on the far side scope of a ruler to expand his territory or obtain power as well as the unscrupulous ethics of permitting torture, trickery, deceit, and spying as legitimate suggests, to realize territory, wealth and power. Arthashastra deals thoroughly with the qualities and disciplines needed for a king to rule his subjects more expeditiously. According to Kautilya, a kKing is one who: Has self-control, having conquered the unfriendly temptations of the senses Cultivates the intellect by consulting with elders Keeps his eyes open and stays updated through spies Is always active in promoting the protection and welfare of the folks Ensures the speculation of the themes of their Dharma by authority and example Improves his own discipline by enhancing his learning in all branches of knowledge; and Endears himself to his subjects by enriching them Quarrels among individuals may be resolved by winning over the leaders or by removing the reason for the quarrel - individuals fighting among people themselves facilitate the king by competing with each other.
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It is from these four that all other knowledge, wealth and human prosperity is derived. In the absence of governance, the strong will swallow the weak. In the presence of governance, the weak resists the strong. Those who are unrighteous, should not work in civil and criminal courts. Those who lack integrity in financial matters or fall for the lure of money must not be in revenue collection or treasury, states the text, and those who lack integrity in sexual relationships must not be appointed to Vihara services pleasure grounds.
The Purohit, claims the text, must be one who is well educated in the Vedas and its six Angas. The Arthashastra, in Topic , Book 7 lists the causes of disaffection, lack of motivation and increase in economic distress among people.
It opens by stating that wherever "good people are snubbed, and evil people are embraced" distress increases. The just and victorious king administers justice in accordance with Dharma established law , Sanstha customary law , Nyaya edicts, announced law and Vyavahara evidence, conduct. It asserts, in chapter 4.
However, if she marries a man her father arranges or approves of, she has the right to take the ornaments with her. The bride is given the maximum property inheritance rights when the parents select the groom and the girl consents to the selection Brahma marriage , and minimal if bride and groom marry secretly as lovers Gandharva marriage without the approval of her father and her mother.
In Topic 19, chapter 2, the text suggests: The king should grant exemption [from taxes] to a region devastated by an enemy king or tribe, to a region beleaguered by sickness or famine. He should safeguard agriculture when it is stressed by the hardships of fines, forced labor, taxes, and animal herds when they are harassed by thieves, vicious animals, poison, crocodiles or sickness He should keep trade routes [roads] clear when they are oppressed by anyone, including his officers, robbers or frontier commanders when they are worn out by farm animals The king should protect produce, forests, elephants forests, reservoirs and mines established in the past and also set up new ones.
When passion is roused in them, they should start quarrels by creating belief about their love in one and by going to another. The spies should be trained to adopt roles and guises, to use coded language to transmit information, and be rewarded by their performance and the results they achieve, states the text.
Kautilya's Arthashastra: Quick overview
Book II: Summary Book Two Taught Us about Distribution of Land, formation of villages, Constructions of forts, collection of revenue, handling mines and construction operations, duties of various superintendents eg: superintendents of Storehouse, commerce, forest product, armoury, weight and measures, tolls and many other things Book III: Summary Book Three Contains Things Like Determinations of forms of agreement, Concerning marriage, duty of wife, division of inheritance, buildings, sales of buildings, recovery of debts, concerning deposits, rules for labours and slaves, robbery, defamation, assault, gambling and many other things. Book IV: Summary In Book Four Chanakya Taught Us about protections of artisans, protections of ministers, protection against natural disasters,detection of youth of criminal tendency by spies, examination of death, death penalty, penalty for rape. Book V: Summary Book Five Teaches us about Concerning the awards of punishments, replenishment of treasury, Concerning subsistence to government servants, conduct of courtier and more related stuff. Book VII: Summary Book Seven contains things like alliance of states, character of different kings, treaty of peace, establishing normality after war, the march of combining power, Six-fold policy, agreement of peace for the acquisition of land, agreement of undertaking a work, recruitment of lost power, attitude of conquered king, making peace and related stuff Book VIII: Summary Book eight tells us about considering trouble of the king and kingdom, trouble of army, trouble of a friend and various types of troubles. Book IX: Summary In Book Nine chanakya tell us how to prepare for a upcoming invasion and how to prepare kingdom for a war. Book X: Summary Book Ten contains things like preparing army for a war and taking various cautions for upcoming war.
The Arthashastra – A Treatise on Statecraft and Military Strategy
However, if we carefully examine some of the literature after the second urbanisation emergence of the janapads of the subcontinent we find a lot of material which tells us that ancient Indian writers were not devoid of the capability of writing treatises on statecraft and military strategy. During his period society underwent a lot of changes with the rise and fall of empires, and invasions of the Yavans Greeks under Alexander the Great. The Kautilyan study on politics and war has become famous not only for the factual point of view but also because one can deduce that certain principles of war mentioned in it can be applied to this day. This article is the first in a series of articles which will deal the Arthashastra and what it has to say about statecraft and military strategy although the Arthashastra contains information on the administration of the state and economy. Shama Shastri aroused much interest and a fierce debate about its composition ensued among scholars. A critical examination of the text convinced some of the scholars that the Arthashastra was not the work of one individual.
Kautilya Arthashastra in English: Complete Book, PDF & Summary