Thumbnailing 2. Special views in the file manager Via the "View as" feature in Nautilus, the GNOME file manager, you can now see special views of directories containing audio, image, and video files. For image and video files, the file manager will show a preview of the file instead of the normal icon. You can also play some file formats directly from the file manager. Figure 10 View As Audio 2.
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Share on Reddit Introduction Linux is no longer just a buzzword. Its low cost, commoditization, rapid rate of development and ample scope for customization have driven adoption in corporations and homes the world over. Until now, though, people have largely used Linux for back-end tasks. Fortunately for Linux fans and we would argue for the industry as a whole , this is finally beginning to change. Recent months have seen a number of high-profile desktop Linux deployments which include the City of Munich, Germany and the regional government in Extremadura, Spain.
These municipal adoptions have been driven largely by the ever-spiraling licensing costs of proprietary systems, the increasing availability of Linux support from software and hardware vendors, and rapidly improving desktop usability, as demonstrated by a recent rash of new products from the likes of SuSE, Red Hat, Codeweavers and Ximian.
Today, gnome. GNOME 2. This release has also undergone some general polish, and it can finally be said that the GNOME 2 platform has achieved maturity with this release. The Basics of the Linux Desktop People who try to learn about Linux for the first time are often overwhelmed by jargon and concepts that are foreign to them.
Programs say, Solitaire are not aware of the specific model of device that the output is going to, as drawing operations are performed on a sort of virtual canvas. The canvas, the "paint," and the "brushes" are all provided by the OS.
The end result is that such applications use a standardized method of displaying items on the screen, printing to a printer, etc. In the case of screen composition, the GDI can instruct the display driver to draw arcs, text, filled boxes, etc. Windows also provides, as part of the User layer that sits on top of GDI in the NT kernel , a set of standard widgets or controls buttons, labels, checkboxes, radio buttons, tabbed sheets, separators, menus, etc.
A standard application programming interface API is provided as part of various system libraries to enable their use; however, programmers are free to roll their own widgets using the GDI to draw them directly. Input via the mouse or keyboard is passed onto the User layer, and from there into an input queue managed by a system raw input thread, which passes it onto applications as events. The input queue also plays some part in managing windows along with the User layer.
In short you can think of Microsoft Windows as providing an officially sanctioned and tightly controlled set of building blocks for GUI applications. This results in a certain level of visual consistency between applications, and makes the whole GUI appear as a single, monolithic entity. The consumer gets an OS that, within limits, looks the same everywhere, at all times of course, you can use different themes, but the look is overall rather consistent, and it is not very easy to change without 3rd party tools.
This subsystem is responsible for composing items, and it is the clearing-house for all instructions from applications to draw to any device, be it the screen, a printer, a plotter, PostScript or PDF output.
It composes the widgets, just as the User subsystem does in Windows. In the case of screen rendering, it then rasterizes the drawing and passes the bitmapped image on to Quartz Compositor, which then can utilize hardware acceleration or not to draw the desktop using the bitmaps as the constituent parts. It also receives input events from the input device drivers, is responsible for notifying applications of input available to them, and deals with window management.
Rich object operations are handled by the Mac OS X Clipboard, a background server meant to handle drag-and-drop, cut, copy, paste, etc.
At a slight cost to mutability, this results in a desktop that is very consistent, not just within itself, but also across installations. The Linux desktop, in contrast, is drawn by a number of different programs and libraries working together, some of which are exclusive to one another. Applications use the X protocol to tell the display subsystem what to draw.
It is used to describe items like arcs, boxes, text, etc. A display subsystem, more commonly called an X server for it serves applications , is responsible for dealing with the display and input hardware itself incorporating display and input device drivers. The application is called an X client, for it requests the server to draw things on its behalf. By itself, the X protocol is a bit tedious for application programmers to utilize, since it is a network protocol which actually allows for rather interesting uses, such as network-transparent window display.
An implementation of a software framework for X clients and servers available from the X Consortium includes X client libraries that programmers can use to handle the protocol communications, and can focus on doing their drawing. For this reason, programmers have put together libraries that use the X client libraries to draw common widgets, and to generally make it easier to write applications.
These are called widget toolkits. Most other windowing systems tend to manage windows selection for keyboard and mouse input, i. With the X Window System, however, a special application designated as the window manager deals with this. There are many, many window managers available for the X Window System. GNOME supports window managers conforming to the freedesktop.
Its primary responsibility is to provide consistency between applications, both in look and in feel. So the desktop environment standardizes the widget toolkit and the behavior of the window manager. In addition, it provides utilities to make life easier for the user e. The desktop environment may also specify behaviors for conforming applications for things like dragging and dropping objects from one application into another, embedding one document in another even handled by a different application , rich object clipboard e.
This usually takes the form of a set of programs that mediate between the applications and objects involved in the operation, and a set of libraries that make it easier for application writers to write applications that can participate in these object transfer or embedding operations. With so many separate components, it would be remarkably easy for them to be developed in separate directions and end up not playing together well.
This has been a problem with Linux desktops in the past. To alleviate these problems, freedesktop. As desktop environments, window managers and widget toolkits are beginning to comply with freedesktop.
As the standards mature, the desktops will begin to share a common thumbnail and icon infrastructure, as well as a unified standard for displaying and dealing with menus and menu resources.
By the time you read this, pre-compiled binaries may be available for most systems, or you can wait until the next major release of your distribution of choice, which will more than likely include GNOME 2.
Human Interface Guidelines
This feature for subscribers only! Introduction Linux is no longer just a buzzword. Its low cost, commoditization, rapid rate of development and ample scope for customization have driven adoption in corporations and homes the world over. Until now, though, people have largely used Linux for back-end tasks. Fortunately for Linux fans and we would argue for the industry as a whole , this is finally beginning to change. Recent months have seen a number of high-profile desktop Linux deployments which include the City of Munich, Germany and the regional government in Extremadura, Spain.
Inside the GNOME 2.4 Desktop and Developer Platform
CFB: Assuming for now therefore that we ought to be recommending Gtk toolbars, but trying to keep the text as widget-neutral as possible -. Which should it be? On the other hand, the Gtk one is somewhat clunky, and projects like Evo, AbiWord etc. CB: Flow chart diagram. Boxes with arrows showing flow of user scenario. An transitional paragraph probably needs to be added after the "right" vs. Consensus was against giving OK and Cancel additional access keys, but they have them anyway and Owen refuses to remove them
[gnome-devel-docs] Updated Greek translations
Windows can be dragged between workspaces with the Workspace Switcher applet Menus scroll when they get too big Smarter menus accommodate diagonal mouse movements 2. Icons and Themes New stock icons and color palette Support for theming of stock icons CD Player and login screens are now themeable A clean and attractive default appearance 2. Applications Redesigned and easier to use Search Tool Brand new lightweight help application, Yelp Control center applications for controlling GNOME 2 properties have been greatly simplified and reduced in number Increasing compliance with freedesktop. Mads Villadsen 2.
Inside the GNOME 2.4 Desktop & Developer Platform
The Relevance of Social Participation. Pointer and touch input Mouse, touchpad and touchscreen interaction. Use the first letter of the label, or of one of its other words if it has more. Pointer and touch input. It is written for interface designers, graphic artists and software developers who will be creating software for Lubuntu. What parents should know; Myths vs.