Globalization: The Essentials explores the flows, structures, processes, and consequences of globalization in the modern economic, political, and A concise exploration of globalization and its role in the contemporary era Driven by technological advancements and global corporations, more and more people are swept up by globalizing processes, creating new winners and losers. Globalization: The Essentials explores the flows, structures, processes, and consequences of globalization in the modern economic, political, and cultural landscape. This comprehensive introduction offers balanced coverage of areas such as global economic and cultural flows, environmental sustainability, the impact of technology, and racial, economic, and gender inequality -- providing readers with foundational knowledge of globalization. Examples of current research and recent global developments, such as emerging economies and global health concerns, encourage classroom discussion and promote independent study. Offering a multidisciplinary approach, this textbook is an invaluable primary or supplemental resource for undergraduate study in any social science field, as well as coursework on economics, migration, inequality and stratification, and politics.

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As Ritzer said in a later interview, "I basically trained myself as a social theorist, and so I had to learn it all as I went. Throughout the food production, everything is standardized and highly calculated: the size of the beef patty, the amount of french fries per order, and the time spent in a franchise. It is thought that the academic experience, in high school and higher education, can be quantified into one number, the GPA.

Also, calculability leads to the idea that the longer the resume or list of degrees, the better the candidate, during an application process. In addition to academics being affected by the McDonaldization in society, sports, specifically basketball have also been affected. In order to maintain the predictability for each franchise, there has to be "discipline, order, systematization, formalization, routine, consistency, and a methodical operation".

The Walt Disney Company also has regulations in place, like dress code for men and women, in order to add to the predictability of each amusement park or Disney operation.

Predictability has also extended into movie sequels and TV shows. This is a way to keep a complicated system running smoothly; rules and regulations that make efficiency, calculability, and predictability possible. The computers tell the managers how many hamburgers are needed at the lunchtime rush and other peak times and the size and shape of the pickles as well as how many go on a hamburger is managed and control. Every step of the learning process at Sylvan, the U-shaped tables and instruction manuals, is controlled as well as each step of the birthing process, in modern-day hospitals, and the process of dying.

Some claim that rationalization leads to "more egalitarian" societies. The McDonaldization of society also allows operations to be more productive, improve the quality of some products, and produce services and products at lower cost. However, McDonaldization also alienates people and creates a disenchantment of the world. The increased standardization of society dehumanizes people and institutions. The "assembly line" feel of fast-food restaurants is transcending many other facets of life and removing humanity from previously human experiences.

Prosumption First coined by Alvin Toffler in , the term prosumption is used by Ritzer and Jurgenson, to break down the false dichotomy between production and consumption and describe the dual identity of economic activities.

Ritzer argues that prosumption is the primordial form of economic activities, and the current ideal separation between production and consumption is aberrant and distorted due to the effect of both Industrial Revolution and post-WWII American consumption boom.

It has only recently become popularly acknowledged that the existence of prosumption as activities on the internet and Web 2. Various online activities require the input of consumers such as Wikipedia entries, Facebook profiles, Twitter, Blog, Myspace, Amazon preferences, eBay auctions, Second Life, etc.

Ritzer argues that we should view all economic activities on a continuum of prosumption with prosumption as production p-a-p and prosumption as consumption p-a-c on each pole. Something vs. It also describes things as being fairly unusual. Examples of "something" are local sandwich shops, local hardware stores, family arts and crafts places, or a local breakfast cafe.

He explains the advantages and disadvantages of both "something" and "nothing" in The McDonaldization of Society. He defines it as involving a worldwide diffusion of practices, relations, and forms of social organization and the growth of global consciousness. The Globalization of Nothing. To better understand globalization, it can be broken down into a few characteristics: The beginning of global communication through different media like television and the Internet The formation of a "global consciousness" [12] In addition to The Globalization of Nothing, Ritzer has edited The Blackwell Companion to Globalization , written Globalization: A Basic Text , and edited an Encyclopedia of Globalization forthcoming.

Capitalism, Americanization , and McDonaldization are all parts of grobalization. Grobalization creates a world where: Things are more homogenous and ubiquitous. Larger forces overwhelm the power of people to adapt and innovate in ways that preserve their autonomy. Social processes are coercive, determining the nature of local communities, which have little room to maneuver. Consumer goods and the media are key forces that largely dictate the nature of the self and the groups a person joins.

In his book, The Globalization of Nothing, he quotes that textbooks are "oriented to rationalizing, McDonaldizing, the communication of information.

Yet, these textbooks are surprisingly sold out worldwide, only to be slightly revised to reflect local standards. The local individuals are able to manipulate their own situation in the world and become creative agents in what products and services are represented in their local environment within the glocalized world.

Ritzer further explains Glocalization as a relatively benign process that is closest to the "something" end of things. It creates variety and heterogeneity within society. There are three types of metatheorizing: Mu, Mp, and Mo. Through the application of the three subsets of metatheory, Ritzer argues that the field of sociology can create a stronger foundation, experience "rapid and dramatic growth", and generally increase not only the knowledge of metatheory but social theory in general.

Within the greater category of Mu, Ritzer establishes four other subsets: internal-intellectual, internal-social, external-intellectual, and external-social.

The internal-intellectual sector of Mu identifies the "schools of thought" and the structure of current sociologists and social theories. The internal-social subtype identifies connections between sociologists and connections between sociologists and society. The last two subsets of Mu are looking more at the macrolevel of sociology than the other two subsets.

The third subtype of Mu is the external-intellectual view of sociology; it looks at different studies and their concepts, tools, and ideas in order to apply these aspects to sociology. The fourth, and final, subset is external-social where the impact of social theory in a larger societal setting is studied. The second Mp , aims at being a prelude to theory development. New social theory is created due to the complex study and interpretation of other sociologists.

The last Mo , aims at being a source of perspectives that overarch sociological theory. Modern and postmodern social theory Ritzer is known to generations of students as the author of numerous comprehensive introductions and compendia in social theory.

Postmodern society is a consumer society that invents new means of consumption, such as credit cards , shopping malls , and shopping networks.

Today, "Capitalism needs us to keep on spending at ever-increasing levels to be and remain capitalism. Works George Ritzer has published many monographs and textbooks. He has edited three encyclopedias, including the Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology. He has written approximately one hundred scholarly articles in respected journals.

Ritzer also discusses what implications this has for the field of sociology. Ritzer proposes an integrated paradigm dealing with the interrelationships between the many levels of social reality.

He describes this as the process by which the principles of the fast food restaurants are coming to dominate more and more sectors of society in the United States as well as the rest of the world. George Ritzer is most well known for The McDonaldization of Society, which has five different editions and has sold over , copies as of Merton , Erving Goffman , Richard M. By linking theory to 21st-century culture, this book resonates with audiences in a way that few other books do, opening their eyes to many current issues, especially in consumption and globalization.

As in previous editions, the book has been updated and it offers new discussions of, among others, In-N-Out Burger and Pret a Manger as possible antitheses of McDonaldization. The biggest change, however, is that the book has been streamlined to offer an even clearer articulation of the McDonaldization thesis.

The final chapter also looks at "The DeMcDonaldization of Society", and concludes that while it is occurring on the surface, McDonaldization is alive and well.

Critical questions are raised throughout, and the reader is compelled not only to seek answers to these questions, but also to critically evaluate the questions as well as their answers. The current edition features a greater emphasis on the main topic of globalization : a new first chapter offers an introductory overview of globalization and globalization theory, outlining the unique ways in which these topics are addressed throughout the text.

It also delves into two subprocesses of globalization — "glocalization" and "grobalization. The current edition was updated to reflect the recent economic recession and the impact of the internet. The third edition demonstrates how we have created new "cathedrals" of consumption places that enchant us so as to entice us to stay longer and consume more while continuing to take capitalism to a new level.

These places of consumption , whether in our homes, the mall, or cyberspace, are in a constant state of "enchanting the disenchanted," luring us through new spectacles because their rational qualities are both necessary and deadening at the same time. The book also includes a wide range of theoretical perspectives — Marxian, Weberian, critical theory, postmodern theory — as well as a number of concepts such as hyperconsumption, implosion, simulation , and time and space to show the audience how sociological theory can be applied to everyday phenomena.

The book is split into four parts. Despite being a workaholic, he has always made time for his family. Ritzer also loves to travel, oftentimes using the work trips as a time for a mini vacation with his wife.


McDonaldization: Definition and Overview of the Concept

Ashley Crossman Updated January 28, McDonaldization is a concept developed by American sociologist George Ritzer which refers to the particular kind of rationalization of production, work, and consumption that rose to prominence in the late twentieth century. The basic idea is that these elements have been adapted based on the characteristics of a fast-food restaurant—efficiency, calculability, predictability and standardization, and control—and that this adaptation has ripple effects throughout all aspects of society. Since that time the concept has become central within the field of sociology and especially within the sociology of globalization. According to Ritzer, the McDonaldization of society is a phenomenon that occurs when society, its institutions, and its organizations are adapted to have the same characteristics that are found in fast-food chains. These include efficiency, calculability, predictability and standardization, and control. According to Weber, the modern bureaucracy was defined by hierarchical roles, compartmentalized knowledge and roles, a perceived merit-based system of employment and advancement, and the legal-rationality authority of the rule of law.


Essentials of Sociology

Drawing on Weber idea of rationalization, Ritzer contends that by the end of the 20th century the principles of fast food restaurants have come to be exported to many other sectors of our everyday life, thus resulting in a process of homogenization. These principles amount to 5: efficienty, calculability, predictability, control through substitution of technology for people and the irrationality of rationality. Efficiency — the need to find the best means for obtaining the end-product. This implies a set of rigid rules, procedures and protocols that both employees and customers must abide by. Even the interaction between the two sides is done on a pre-established protocol. Calculability — quantity is regarded as being more important than quality. Because timing is highly important in a fast food restaurant, getting the desired product in a short time is more important than obtaining a product of high quality.


Globalization: The Essentials, 2nd Edition


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