Varicella Chickenpox Varicella-zoster virus VZV is a member of the herpesvirus family, and the causative agent of both varicella chickenpox and herpes zoster shingles, see Chapter Varicella results from primary infection with VZV and is a highly communicable human disease. Once acquired, VZV becomes permanently established in the sensory ganglia in a latent form with intermittent reactivation in a dermatomal distribution, resulting in herpes zoster. Although acute varicella is usually a self-limited infection, before extensive use of the varicella vaccine most children had upward of to skin lesions, approximately to 11, children were hospitalized annually, and up to individuals per year died of the disease or its complications. VZV is found worldwide, and annual epidemics occur most often during late winter and spring. Varicella is highly contagious and is usually spread between the prodrome and the first 3 days of the skin eruption.
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Fifth disease or infectious erythema. Roseola infantum or sixth disease. The incubation period of this virus is between 11 and 14 days. In general, the exanthema appears 14 days after exposure to the virus. The rash begins on the face and then spreads to the thorax and extremities.
Erythematous plaques appear that join and disappear leaving brown colored stains and scaly skin. The most frequent complications include neurologies and pneumonia. Children who end up in the hospital due to the measles must remain in respiratory isolation for 4 days after the appearance of the exanthema. Specialists recommend vitamin A for children with the mumps who live in areas where this vitamin is lacking. Prevention of this disease is simple and involves the application of the MMR vaccine.
This vaccine protects children from mumps, measles, and rubella. Thanks to vaccination campaigns, this illness has been under control for a long time. However, unvaccinated preschool-aged children run the risk of contracting this disease, as well as teenagers whose vaccination failed. Chickenpox Chickenpox is one of the most well-known exanthematous diseases and results from the varicella zoster virus. Its manifestations are more serious in adults and those who are immunosuppressed.
Here, the incubation period is between 10 and 21 days. The exanthema, in this case, is macular papular and itchy.
These lesions change their shape until finally forming scabs. This is when the period of contagion is over.
Once again, in order to prevent this illness, children should receive the varicella vaccine according to their vaccination calendar. In adults and especially in pregnant women, this disease can lead to more serious complications.
The incubation period of rubella lasts anywhere between 14 and 21 days. This pink rash tends to be macular and papular and quickly spreads in less than 24 hours. The virus behind this illness comes from the Rubivirus genus. No treatment is necessary. As we stated above, the MMR vaccine prevents this illness as well as mumps and measles. Scarlet fever While the above exanthematous diseases are all viral, scarlet behavior is a bacterial disease caused by a toxin of the same bacteria that produces strep throat.
This bacteria releases a toxin that produces a skin rash and reddening of the tongue. These are the two most typical features of scarlet fever. The exanthema is maculopapular and erythematous. Many compare it to sandpaper. In the case of penicillin allergy, patients may receive erythromycin.
This erythema is usually the first sign of fifth disease, although other symptoms may also come first. These include fever, headache, overall discomfort, nausea, and vomiting.
The incubation period is between 5 and 14 days. It can produce serious complications in individuals with immunodeficiency or hemolytic anemia, as well as in pregnant women. The incubation period of this illness is between 10 and 15 days. It tends to cause high fever — above degrees — that lasts between 3 and 5 days.
The cause behind this viral infection is a virus from the Herpesviridae family. It tends to appear in children between the ages of 3 months and 3 years, generally during spring or fall.
It spreads through respiratory secretions. Exanthematous diseases in children: Conclusion Besides the illness mentioned above, there are many other exanthematous diseases that are common during childhood.
However, we must pay attention to the appearance of any sort of rash in children. If your child presents any symptoms, see a pediatrician to get a proper diagnosis.
Exanthematous Diseases in Children
JoJotilar The vaccine has proven very effective in preventing severe chickenpox. Expand Navigation Section Primary Diaeases. Immunizations have decreased the number of cases of measles, mumps, rubella, and chickenpox, but all viral skin infections require clinical care by a physician or other healthcare professional. How is chickenpox spread? About 5 percent of measles aredue to vaccine failure.
New aspects of exanthematous diseases of childhood.
Exanthematous Diseases of Childhood