E-mail: nanangsaptono gmail. Kondisi geomorfologis kawasan Kerajaan Sunda berada pada pegunungan dan pedataran bergelombang. Kondisi seperti ini berpengaruh pada sistem mata pencaharian masyarakat yaitu sebagai peladang. Kerajaan dengan latar agraris perladangan biasanya tidak bisa bertahan lama. Permasalahan yang dibahas dalam kajian ini adalah mengapa Kerajaan Sunda dapat bertahan lama.
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Main character[ edit ] The hero of the literature is Prabu English: Prince Jaya Pakuan alias Bujangga Manik, a Sundanese Hindu rishi , who, though a prince at the court of Pakuan Pajajaran capital city of Sunda kingdom , which was located near present-day Bogor city in western part of Java island , preferred to live a life of a man of religion.
As a hermit he made two journeys from Pakuan Pajajaran to central and eastern Java and back, the second one including a visit to Bali. After his return he practiced asceticism on a mountain in western Java, where his bodily existence came to an end; in the final part of the text the journey of his soul to the heavenly regions is described in great detail.
These descriptions are restricted mainly to a mention of the names of places, regions, rivers and mountains situated on or near the route followed. The total number of such names, including those in other parts of the text, comes to some , most of them relating to Java island. These details are therefore of great historical value, especially if the time of writing of this undated story can be at least roughly determined. It is clear from the text itself that it dates from pre- Muslim times of West Java, precisely from the era of Hindu Sunda Kingdom.
The script used in the manuscript is the usual Old Sundanese variety of the Indonesian family of Indic syllabaries, which fell into disuse after the penetration of Islam into western part of Java island. The language represents an older stage of Sundanese. It displays a marked influence from Javanese but does not contain one word which is tracable to Arabic, the language of Islam.
In the content of the story, too, Islam is completely absent. More specifically the mention of Majapahit , Malaka and Demak allow us to date the writing of the story in the 15th century, probably the later part of this century, or the early 16th century at the latest. This means the story took place prior to the fall of Malacca to Portuguese in Summary[ edit ] After a brief introduction the protagonist, prince Jaya Pakuan, is introduced in line This princely name is not mentioned later on; the name Bujangga Manik occurs for the first time in , and only from on it is regularly used to indicate the protagonist.
In lines he takes leave from his mother, telling her that he is going east. He is quite succinct in explaining his departure. Of his costume we learn that he wears a haircloth saceundung kaen 36 ; perhaps this haircloth is an indication of the religious state which Bujangga Manik assumes for his travel. He refuses to answer questions of the public about the purpose of his journey First journey[ edit ] Then he starts his first trip, which he describes in great detail.
Only a few details are mentioned here. From the Puncak Pass he travels on; by crossing the Cipamali river he enters the Javanese territory alas Jawa 82 and wanders through various districts of Majapahit and the plain of the region of Demak ; via Jatisari he arrives at Pamalang , still a well-known coastal town halfway between Tegal to the west and Pekalongan to the east.
Here he is overcome by longing for his mother 89 and he decides to go home; however, this time he prefers to travel by sea and boards a ship from Malacca. The Sultanate of Malacca from the second half of the fifteenth century until its conquest by Portuguese in was the dominating trading power in the area. This was probably the time the story is set was written. The departure of the ship from the harbour is described as a festive ceremony : guns wedil are discharged, musical instruments are played, several songs, the titles of which are mentioned, are loudly sung by the crew; a detailed description of the materials used for the building of the ship is given: various kinds of bamboo and rattan , a mast of laka wood , and an Indian rudder are specifically mentioned; Bujangga Manik is duly impressed and full of admiration for the crew which originates from various places.
Homecoming[ edit ] The trip from Pamalang to Kalapa , the harbour in West Java takes half a month , which suggest that the ship may have stopped at various places in between.
From Kalapa Bujangga Manik comes first to the place of customs Pabeyaan and then proceeds to the royal court of Pakuan , in the northern part of the present-day town of Bogor Noorduyn He enters Pakancilan , goes to the beautifully adorned pavilion and seats himself there. He finds his mother engaged in weaving, various aspects of its technique being described in five formulaic lines She is surprised and excited to see her son back.
She immediately leaves her work and enters the house, passing through several layers of curtains, and ascends to her bedroom. The mother prepares the usual welcome for her son, which consists of a tray of all the ingredients for preparing betel quids, combs her hair, makes herself up and puts on expensive clothes.
She then descends from her bedroom, leaves the house, seats herself under the palanquin and welcome her son. Again we have a formulaic description, as is apparent from parallel lines in the other texts. The stereotypic character is also clear from the fact that it is a passage deviating from the general narrative perspective which is focused on Bujangga Manik.
The son accepts the betel quid which his mother offers him. Jompong Larang leaves her palace, across the river Cipakancilan and comes to the palace. There she sees a stranger chewing betel in the guest-house. The princess, who is dressed in negligee and has an imported Chinese box placed besides her , sees from the corners of her eye the hurried return of Jompong Larang, who ascends the stairs and seats herself. The friar is the ideal lover, and moreover he is well versed in the scriptures and speak Javanese Lady Ajung Larang is immediately overwhelmed with love and desire.
She interrupts her weaving and enters her house. There she engages in preparing a gift for the young man, consisting of a variety of special betel quids, using exquisite materials and preparing them with the utmost care. Jompong Larang is sent to the prince with this expensive gift; her mistress explicitly requires her to explain that if the gift is accepted the lady herself will follow.
She asks Jompong Larang what her message is, and the servant duly reports the instruction given by the princess. Then the mother addressed her son, in a lengthy speech explaining the outstanding quality of the gift In fact she mentions many more articles that were early described. It is clear that by this practice an extra sexual charge is loaded to the betel. A number of quids are identified by a specific name. His love is with the instructions which he received from his teacher He requests her therefore to go together with Jompong Larang in order to return the gifts to the princess and to comfort her.
He prefers to life in celibacy and to keep to the lessons which he received during his recent trip to Central Java, in the district of religious schools on the slopes of the Merbabu here called gunung Damalung and Pamrihan , where, as one of the friars, he communicated with hermits and ascetics, following the teachers indicated as dewaguru, pandita, and purusa What his mother requests from him is bad, she shows him the way to death and the cemetery, and ultimately to hell Therefore, he feels compelled for good to take leave from his mother Second journey[ edit ] Bujangga Manik takes up his bag containing the great book apus ageung and the Siksaguru, as well as his rattan walking stick and his whip.
With these dramatic words he leaves the palace and begins his long wandering, never return home again. He continues his journey eastward, mentioning a large number of place names and pointing out the high mountains in Central Java which he sees in the south, some of them bearing the names which are used until the present day.
Genre Kisah perjalanan Perjalanan Bujangga Manik merupakan salah satu naskah kuno ber bahasa Sunda yang memuat kisah perjalanan seorang tokoh bernama Bujangga Manik mengelilingi Tanah Jawa dan Bali. Naskah ini ditulis pada daun nipah , dalam puisi naratif berupa lirik yang terdiri dari delapan suku kata, dan saat ini disimpan di Perpustakaan Bodley di Universitas Oxford sejak tahun MS Jav. Naskah Bujangga Manik seluruhnya terdiri dari 29 lembar daun nipah , yang masing-masing berisi sekitar 56 baris kalimat yang terdiri dari 8 suku kata. Tokoh dalam naskah ini adalah Prabu Jaya Pakuan alias Bujangga Manik , seorang resi Hindu dari Kerajaan Sunda yang lebih suka menjalani hidup sebagai seorang resi, walaupun sebenarnya ia seorang kesatria dari keraton Pakuan Pajajaran , ibu kota Kerajaan Sunda, yang bertempat di wilayah yang sekarang menjadi Kota Bogor. Sebagai seorang resi, dia melakukan dua kali perjalanan dari Pakuan Pajajaran ke timur Jawa.
Main character[ edit ] The hero of the literature is Prabu English: Prince Jaya Pakuan alias Bujangga Manik, a Sundanese Hindu rishi , who, though a prince at the court of Pakuan Pajajaran capital city of Sunda kingdom , which was located near present-day Bogor city in western part of Java island , preferred to live a life of a man of religion. As a hermit he made two journeys from Pakuan Pajajaran to central and eastern Java and back, the second one including a visit to Bali. After his return he practiced asceticism on a mountain in western Java, where his bodily existence came to an end; in the final part of the text the journey of his soul to the heavenly regions is described in great detail. These descriptions are restricted mainly to a mention of the names of places, regions, rivers and mountains situated on or near the route followed. The total number of such names, including those in other parts of the text, comes to some , most of them relating to Java island. These details are therefore of great historical value, especially if the time of writing of this undated story can be at least roughly determined. It is clear from the text itself that it dates from pre- Muslim times of West Java, precisely from the era of Hindu Sunda Kingdom.