ASTM E456 96 PDF

A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon e indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. Scope 1. Referenced Documents 2.

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A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon e indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

Scope 1. Referenced Documents 2. Terminology acceptance control chart or acceptance control chart usage, n , n—a decision that the process is operating in a satisfactory manner with respect to the statistical measures being plotted: action limits: control limits. NOTE 1—The term accuracy, when applied to a set of test results, involves a combination of a random component and of a common systematic error or bias component.

Current edition approved June 10, Published September Originally published as E — Last previous edition E — E assignable cause, n—a factor that contributes to variation, and which is feasible to detect and identify.

NOTE 2—Many factors will contribute to variation but it may not be feasible economically or otherwise to identify some of them. Attributes are counted whereas variables are mea- sured. Attribute distributions are discrete. See variables data. ARL curves are used to describe the relative quickness in detecting level shifts of various control chart systems. NOTE 3—A batch is usually smaller than a lot.

NOTE 4—Bias is the total systematic error as contrasted to random error. There may be one or more systematic error components contributing to the bias. DISCUSSION—Examples of cluster sampling are: selection of city blocks as primary sampling units; selection of a household as a cluster of people of which only one may be interviewed ; selection of bundles of rods or pipe from a shipment; and selection, from a shipment, of cartons that contain boxes or packages within them.

E confounded factorial design, n—a factorial experiment in which only a fraction of the treatment combinations are run in each block and where the selection of the treatment combinations assigned to each block is arranged so that one or more prescribed effects is are confounded with the block effect s , while the other effects remain free from confound- ing. NOTE 5—All factor level combinations are included in the experiment.

E confounding, n—combining indistinguishably the main effect of a factor or a differential effect between factors interac- tions with the effect of other factor s , block factor s or interactions s. This is accomplished by deliberately preselecting certain effects or differential effects as being of little interest, and arranging the design so that they are confounded with block effects or other preselected principal factor or differential effects, while keeping the other more important effects free from such complica- tions.

Sometimes, however, confounding results from inadvertent changes to a design during the running of an experiment or from incomplete planning of the design, and it serves to diminish, or even to invalidate, the effectiveness of an experiment. E contrast, n—a linear function of the observations for which the sum of the coefficients is zero.

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ASTM E456 96 PDF

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E 456 – 96 Standard Terminology for Relating to Quality and Statistics1

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